Abstracts

ABORIGINAL PEOPLES OF CANADA: A DEMOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE
Andrew J. Siggner, Census Analysis, Statistics Canada; Eric Guimond, Universite de Montreal; Norbert Robitaille, Universite de Montreal; Gustave Goldmann, Statistics Canada

This analysis will focus on the demography of Aboriginal peoples in Canada, namely Indians (often referred to as First Nations), Metis (persons of mixed Indian and other origins), and Inuit (indigenous peoples of Canada's far north). In order to gain a proper understanding of population change over time, the concepts used to operationally define Aboriginal peoples and collection methods will be explored in the various data collection vehicles. Thus, the authors will provide an extensive review of the terminology that has been used to define Aboriginal peoples. The study will look at all aspects of demographic growth of Aboriginal peoples. These will include the classic components of demographic change, namely fertility, mortality and migration. In addition, cultural transfer or "mobility" will be analyzed especially in terms of its impact on population change. The study will also present the socio-economic, family and household characteristics of Aboriginal peoples. A set of projections for the Aboriginal populations will be provided along with reflections on the impacts that future demographic changes (such as the rapidly growing labour forceand elderly populations) will have on other social andeconomic issues facing Aboriginal peoples like employment training or the demand for health care and facilities.

AN ADJUSTMENT TO BRASS' LOGIT MODEL OF THE PROBABILITIES OF SURVIVAL
Samar Mitra, Sociology, Emory University

It is an empirical fact that the logits of the survivorship functions of any two life tables are highly correlated. This led Brass to conclude that given the two parameters of the bivariate linear regression, any life table can be predicted from any other with a high level of accuracy. Recently, it has been shown that the linear model based on the logits can not meet a boundary condition unless the slope coefficient of the regression is equal to one. As can be expected, such a restriction reduces the goodness of fit of the model significantly. A modification of the model has been proposed in this paper by introducing the logarithm of age as another independent variable.

This gives rise to a three parameter model at first, but once again, the boundary condition reduces the number of parameters to two. The model's performance seems to be highly satisfactory.

CANADA'S EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: DESIGNATED GROUPS PROJECTIONS
M.V. George, Demography, Statistics Canada; S.Y. Dai, Demography, Statistics Canada

Population projections are now available for the four federally legislated employment equity target groups: women, aboriginals, persons with disabilities at work, and visible minorities. The projections are produced to the year 2016, based on the 1991 Census, the 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey (HALS) and the 1993-based population projections.

Projections of Canada's Population with Aboriginal Ancestry covers registered Indians, Inuit, Metis, non-status and other Indians for 1991 to 2016. The report presents the demographic characteristics of the Aboriginal population and provides three growth scenarios - slow, medium, and rapid - taking into account the three components of growth: fertility, mortality, and Bill-31 reinstatements.

Projections of Persons with Disabilities presents population by sex and five-year age groups from 1993 to 2016. The projections are based on the assumption that disability rates for the working-age population match those derived from the 1991 HALS, and that any growth in the number of disabled persons is caused solely by demographic change.

Projections of Visible Minority Population Groups covers eight visible minority groups: Blacks, South Asians, Chinese, Other Asians (Koreans, Japanese, and South East Asians), Pacific Islanders (Filipinos and other Pacific Islanders), West Asians and Arabs, Latin Americans, and multiple visible minority origins. The base population was derived from 1991 Census ethnic origin data, supplemented with other information on place of birth, mother tongue and religion. The population projections are based on a number of assumptions about trends in fertility, mortality, immigration, non-permanent residents, and inter-provincial migration. Three projections cover visible minority population by age and sex and also provide their provincial/regional distribution.

CANADIAN FAMILIES ON THE EVE OF THE YEAR 2000
Yves Perron, Universite de Montreal; Helen Desrosiers, INRS; Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk, Universite de Montreal; Celine Le Bourdais, INRS; Nicole Marcil-Gratton, Universite de Montreal; Joel Mongeau, INRS; Denis Morissette, Universite de Montreal

This study will examine family life in Canada from three perspectives: family composition, structure and size; the family from the perspective of its members; and the impact of socio-economic conditions on the family and its members. The monograph will begin with a profile of families and households in 1991, with some comparisons made to the immediate past to show trends. It will then proceed to examine the transitions from the perspective of the individuals who make up the family units and households. Finally, the monograph will examine the impact of environmental factors, such as economic conditions, housing and immigration, on family life.

CENSUS -BASED ESTIMATES OF FERTILITY BY MOTHER'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS IN CANADA, 1991
Edward Ng , Health Statistics, Statistics Canada; Francois Nault, Health Statistics, Statistics Canada

Studies of fertility differentials based on vital statistics are conventionally limited to a few basic demographic variables available on birth certificates. To understand fertility behaviour by other socio-economic characteristics typically requires special surveys. Using data from the 1991 Census long form, we calculated fertility differentials by socio-economic characteristics in terms of the ratio of infants to women of childbearing age. Our results showed that there were distinctive fertility differentials by education, occupation, income, marital status, place of birth and other characteristics. The pros and cons of studies based on census vis-a-vis vital statistics will be discussed.

CONNECTING WOMEN AND AGING: OLDER SINGLE PARENTS LOOKING BACK
Susan A. McDaniel, Sociology, University of Alberta

Target groups of policy focus - female single parents and elderly women - are seldom linked in research, despite socio-demographic interest in mobility and status correlates. This paper examines the multiple and conjunctional conditions of single parenthood experiences of a sample of 27 older people who ever lived as single parents. Relying on qualitative analysis, comparative methods using Boolean algebra, and a feminist-demographic framework, cumulative effects and policy implications of choices and transitions are examined.

CONTINGENT WORK AND THE ABSENCE OF CONTROL OVER ONE'S PROFESSIONAL TRAJECTORY
Paul Bernard, Sociology, Universite de Montreal; Andre Bernier, Sociology, Universite de Montreal; Rene Potvin, Sociology, Universite de Quebec at Rimouski

While it is increasingly widespread, contingent work remains ill-defined and ill-measured. Adopting a "class relations" analytical perspective, we define contingent work as work that does not grant to the worker control over his or her professional trajectory; contingency means not being able to get access to or keep a good job, or to leave a bad job.

Data from the 1989 and the 1994 Canadian General Social Survey are used to construct an eight-fold typology of the control of workers over their trajectory. We then analyze how gender, age, education, and characteristics of the job at the beginning of the five year period determine the position of workers in this typology, and how matters have changer in this respect as we moved from the 80s to the 90s.

DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF CAUSES OF DEATH RESPONSIBLE FOR NARROWING SEX DIFFERENCES IN LIFE EXPECTANCY IN THE INDUSTRIALIZED WORLD
Frank Trovato, Population Research Laboratory, Sociology, University of Alberta; N.M. Lalu, Population Research Laboratory, Sociology, University of Alberta

Between 1970 and the early part of the 1990s several industrialized countries have been experiencing a narrowing of their sex gaps in life expectancy at age zero. Although we have documented this phenomenon in an earlier paper, we have yet to examine the contribution of causes of death to this trend. The present study examines this situation in greater detail from the point of view of the leading causes of death and their contribution to the male/female differential in longevity and their change over since the early part of the 1970s. For this analysis we adapt a decomposition model, developed by Das Gupta, to a large number of industrialized nations. The data were provided by the World Health Organization.

DOES CLASS OF IMMIGRATION MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO THE USE OF UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE BY THE FOREIGN-BORN IN CANADA, 1980 TO 1988?
Bill Marr, Economics Wilfrid Laurier University; Pierre Siklos, Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University

The paper focuses on the use of unemployment insurance by immigrants who landed in Canada between 1980 and 1988, with special reference to their class of immigration at the time of landing. Claims to unemployment insurance by those who landed in 1980 are analyzed for the next eight years. This is done nationally and for Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia separately.

The time path of claims for unemployment insurance by this entry cohort is described and related to the characteristics of the entry class and the Canadian economy in the 1880s.

DOES MONEY MATTER? PARENTAL INCOME AND LIVING ARRANGEMENT SATISFACTION AMONG "BOOMERANG" CHILDREN DURING CO-RESIDENCE
Andrew Wister, Sociology/Anthropology and Gerontology, Simon Fraser University; Barbara Mitchell, Gerontology Research Centre/Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University; Ellen Gee , Sociology/Anthropology and Gerontology, Simon Fraser University

This paper investigates hypotheses pertaining to conflict over financial issues and financial dependency as components of the inverse relationship observed between parental income and co-resident children's living arrangement satisfaction. The data for this research originate from a Vancouver-based study of 218 families, in which one parent and a current or recent "returnee" adult child were interviewed by telephone.

Logistic regression analyses of the data support a negative effect of parental income on living arrangement satisfaction among boomerang kids, that is not directly due to financial conflict or dependency. An alternative hypothesis is offered, which accounts for the income relationship in terms of differing normative expectations surrounding life-course transitions and trajectories.

THE ENTROPY OF HEALTH AND DISEASE: DEMENTIA IN CANADA
Gerry Hill, 333, Helene Street, Rockland, ON K4K 1G4

Two concepts are combined: disease-free life expectancy and the entropy of life tables. A two-state model of disease is described and solutions obtained for the expectations with and without disease. The entropies of these expectations with respect to changes in incidence and mortality rates are derived. Data on dementia among elderly Canadians are used for illustration.

ESTIMATING FERTILITY DIFFERENTIALS BETWEEN IMMIGRANT AND NON-IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN CANADA
Paul Maxim, Sociology, University of Western Ontario

This paper focuses on the problem of estimating fertility differentials among Canadian born and foreign born women based on the census indicator of children ever born. Using the individual level public use file from the 1991 census, a series of models is estimated that examines the impact of woman's place of birth and year of immigration on fertility, controlling for the woman's age and formal educational background.

The analysis is conducted within a GLM framework since this approach i) provides an easy mechanism for controlling for exposure and ii) allows for exceeding flexibility in model specification. Standard OLS procedures pose difficulties since the distribution of children ever born is truncated at 0 and censored within the public use sample file at 7 children. Furthermore, this indicator of fertility represents a truncated cumulative hazard estimate as opposed to the point hazard estimates normally employed in life table approaches to the analysis of fertility. These problems can be solved, however, through the use of Poisson and Negative Binomial regression procedures.

The substantive results indicate that significant heterogeneity exists among the fertility patterns of foreign born women, particularly when theoretically significant covariates are introduced into the models.

FINANCING LONG-TERM CARE: DEMOGRAPHY MEETS PUBLIC POLICY
Mark W. Rosenberg, Geography, Queen's University; Eric G. Moore, Geography, Queen's University

The Survey on Aging and Independence, the Health and Activity Limitation Survey and the General Social Survey indicate that the majority of the elderly population lead active, independent lives. This changes among the very elderly population where increasing disability and chronic poor health mean that long-term care (LTC) becomes vital to the maintenance of the elderly within our communities. Evidence also shows that most LTC is provided informally. Given the future growth of the elderly population and the declining probability that a spouse, other family member or friends will be available to provide LTC, the challenge is to design new models for financing long-term care. Options available are discussed in the context of Canada's changing demographic situation .

GROWING OLD IN CANADA : SOME FINDINGS
Eric G. Moore , Geography, Queen's University; Mark W. Rosenberg, Geography, Queen's University; Donald McGuinness, Geography, Queen's University

Studies of the geographical distribution of the elderly have tended to focus on the population over 65 as a homogeneous group, while studies on individual aging stress the differences in the experience of both younger and older elderly and of males and females. Age and sex differences are particularly significant when considering health status and the need for social support among the elderly.

In our study, we used both local area data from the 1986 and 1991 censuses of Canada and large microdata files containing migration and health status information to explore methodological and substantive issues pertaining to the redistribution of different segments of the elderly population. The role of the institutionalized population is identified and challenges posed for analysis of the experience of the very old are discussed.

THE HEALTH OF CANADA'S IMMIGRANTS
Jiajian Chen, Health Statistics, Statistics Canada; Edward Ng, Health Statistics, Statistics Canada; Russell Wilkins , Health Statistics, Statistics Canada

With Canada's health care system and immigration policy currently under review, concern is growing about the health status and health care needs of immigrants, who, for the past four decades have accounted for about 26% of Canada's population growth. This presentation examines the health status, health care utilization and health-related behaviour of immigrants to Canada in comparison to those of Canadian-born population, based on self reported data from the National Population Health Survey of 1994-95. Age-adjusted prevalences are reported by sex, education and household income, for persons born in Canada and for European and non-European immigrants by duration of residence in Canada.

HOW CANADA WORKS: CHANGES IN THE MAKEUP OF THE LABOUR FORCE IN THE 1970s AND 1980s
Paul Bernard, Sociology, Universite de Montreal; Douglas Baer, University of Western Ontario; Johanne Boisjoly, Universite du Quebec; James Curtis, University of Waterloo; Maryanne Webber, Statistics Canada

The intent of the monograph is to answer four major analytical questions concerning the Canadian Labour Market. The text will first analyze how the work performed in the Canadian economy has changed in the 70s and 80sin terms of work contents, skill levels, and class positions. Secondly the study will examine how the different work roles are combined in different segments of the economy and how these combinations have changed over time. Thirdly the monograph will study the benefits provided by the various work roles in terms of remuneration and employment stability. Finally the authors will examine the patterns of differential access to the various positions in the economy in terms of education levels, genders, age, and categories and regions of residence.

HOW MANY PEOPLE SHOULD THE EARTH HOLD?
T.H. Wonnacott, Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, University of Western Ontario

The number of people the earth can hold currently is estimated to be anything up to 30 billion or more. Just where within that huge range we should aim is not a question of scientific fact as much as a question about human values, and how they inform a wise choice.This paper is an invitation to look at that choice thoughtfully. In particular, many of the criteria proposed by academics - for example, the minimax principle, the maximum average income, and even the maximum average happiness principle - have serious consequences that need to be addressed.

ASIAN IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES: RECENT TRENDS
K.V. Rao, Case Western Reserve University

The 1990 U.S. Census shows that Asian Indians is one of the fastest growing ethnic minorities during the decade 1980-1990. The 1990 US census recorded a total of 815,447, an increase of almost half-million over the 1980 population.

The East-West Center study of Asian Indians in the United States based on 1980 census data concludes that Asian Indians are extremely well assimilated economically but very diversified in other dimensions such as cultural, religious, and other dimensions (Xenos et al., 1989). A review of the largest circulated Asian Indian weekly suggests that marital problems, economic problems, Childcare, child custody type issues are not uncommon among members of this community though portrayed otherwise in the media. This may be a result of recent immigration regulations that have given preference for family class and adaptation of local customs among second generation Asian Indians unlike their parents.

This study explores social, economic, and demographic growth and structure of this emergent minority population demographic growth and structure of this emergent minority population using the 1 percent sample from Public Use Micro data Sample from the 1980 and 1990 censuses. The economic success of Asian Indian immigrants compared to White U.S. born population after controlling for education, length of experience, and area of expertize will be examined in a multivariate model.

INTERGENERATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND POPULATION ESTIMATION
Claude Dionne, Statistics Canada; Donald Kerr, Demography, Statistics Canada

The Intergenerational Model is a multi-dimensional variation on the cohort component method recently developed at Statistics Canada. This model, which relies on vital statistics (births by age of parents), is capable of estimating a population's age distribution by using information on the multiple relationships between direct ancestors and descendants, defined as a function of fertility. For example, each cohort can be considered a filial cohort (daughter or son cohort), related through age-specific fertility to several maternal or paternal cohorts. Conversely, each cohort over 15 years can be defined in terms of its relationship with several filial cohorts, by links of maternity or paternity. In estimation, this model simultaneously includes all such relationships. Preliminary research with this method is encouraging, suggesting that it might serve useful in Statistics Canada's population estimation program.

INTERNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF POPULATION: CANADA'S ROLE
Ruth Archibald, Refugee, Population and Migration; External Affairs and Interactional Trade

The keynote address will focus on Canada's role in international cooperation for population and development. As a member of the Canadian Delegation at the Cairo and Beijing conferences, and as the chair for the 1995 meeting of the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Ruth Archibald will speak about Canada's role in these conferences and in the Commission. She will focus on the issues relating to the next meeting of the Commission, which will be on international migration. The session will also seek to discuss the organization and involvement of Canadian demographers in respect to international cooperation.

LABOUR MARKET DYNAMICS IN THE TEACHING PROFESSION
Neil Guppy, Sociology, University of British Columbia; Scott Davies, Sociology, McMaster University

Teaching, the largest professional occupation in Canada, has experienced several turbulent decades since the 1960s. School enrolments have both swollen and dipped, education finances have been both good and bad, and union strength has ebbed and flowed. In the context of wider social change, we examine how the labour market dynamics within the teaching profession have changed. Using micro-level survey data from the 1994 General Social Survey, we look at transitions into and out of the profession for people who trained as educators at a Canadian University, and for people whose first full-time job was in teaching. In the process of doing this we also examine the changing socio-economic backgrounds of teachers, exploring how their social origins relate to their staying or leaving the teaching profession.

MALE-FEMALE DIFFERENCES IN INCOME OF THE ELDERLY BY BIRTHPLACE AND SOURCES OF INCOME, CANADA, 1990
K.G. Basavarajappa, Statistics Canada

Persistence of male-female differences in income is widely observed. The age, education, experience, the number of hours worked per week and other factors are associated with such differences. In this paper, male-female differences in income of persons aged 55 years and over are examined by birthplace and sources of income. The data come from the 1991 Census of Canada. The reference period for the income is the calendar year 1990. Male-female comparisons for each source are made after standardizing for differences in age among the birthplace groups. There are 15 birthplace groups and 10 sources of income.

MARITAL STATUS AND HEALTH EXPECTANCY IN CANADA, 1986 AND 1991
Jiajian Chen, Health Statistics, Statistics Canada; Russell Wilkins, Health Statistics, Statistics; Francois Nault, Health Statistics, Statistics Canada

This study examines mortality and health differentials by marital status in Canada in 1986 and 1991. Our data are from vital statistics records of death, marriage and divorce, as well as from two censuses and post-censal Health and Activity Limitation Surveys (HALS). Health expectancy by marital status is calculated by applying the age, sex, and marital status specific prevalences of disability and health-related dependency to a multi-state marital status life table. We also use retrospective information from HALS on the onset of disability (at birth or before age 15) to examine the effects of health selection and marriage protection on health outcome. Our results indicate that both health selection and marriage protection have important contributions to health differentials by marital status.

MARITAL STATUS AND MORTALITY AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN CANADA
Frank Trovato, Population Research Laboratory, Sociology

The literature on marital status and mortality has paid little attention, if any, on whether the usual relationships reported in numerous investigations in North America and in other parts of the world apply to all socio-cultural groups. In this study, variations in cause-specific mortality risk are studied across marital status categories for seven immigrant groups and Canadian-born persons. The empirical results are consistent with the marriage protection thesis, that married persons enjoy relatively lower death rates than single and unmarried people. But indirect evidence suggests that health selection cannot be discounted as an additional source of mortality discrepancies. It is also shown that for some causes of death, men would gain greater protection from marriage than would women (e.g., suicide, homicide); however, there is no consistent pattern for these effects across immigrant groups.

MINORITY STATUS AND CHINESE FERTILITY IN CANADA
Zongli Tang, Sociology, University of Alberta

A dominant approach in the literature on minority group fertility is the minority-status hypothesis. However, this hypothesis does not obtain clear support from most empirical tests. This study is unique in three important ways. First, we argue that discrimination brings minorities not only social-psychological insecurity but also social-economic insecurity, which could be measured by Chinese husbands' relative economic status.

Second, the emphasis of this study is put on empirical analysis of fertility differentials between Chinese and British persons at the level of social class, which has been ignored by previous studies. Third, discrimination effects will be utilized to analyze fertility behaviour at all class levels within a minority group.

MODELLING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAUSE OF DEATH STRUCTURE AND OVERALL MORTALITY: THE CASE OF MAURITIUS
Sulaiman Bah, University of Swaziland, P/Bag 4, Kwaluseni, Swaziland

This paper aims to model the relationship between cause of death structure and overall mortality on the Island of Mauritius. The study extends over an 18-year period from 1969 to 1986 and ten grouped causes of death. During this period, Mauritian mortality for both males and females, underwent a transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to that of degenerative diseases. Three models were fitted to the male and female data, a linear model, a curvilinear model and a multiple linear model which incorporates the concept of Epidemiologic Transition. It was found that the linear model fitted data on females very well while the multiple linear model fitted data on males quite well. The curvilinear model generally did not perform well on data for either gender. One relevance of this study is in the indirect estimation of cause of death structure. The implication is that in the indirect estimation of cause of death structure, information on overall mortality alone will not suffice, supplementary information on the Epidemiologic Transition is needed, especially where the mortality rate is undergoing a transition.

NUNAVUT: CANADA'S NEWEST TERRITORY
Cameron W. Stout, Demography, Statistics Canada

In 1999, Canada will officially have 10 provinces and three northern territories. The existing Northwest Territories will be split into two separate territories: the eastern two thirds will be known as Nunavut and the western region has yet to be named. The creation of the Nunavut Territory is the result of an agreement made between the Inuit people and the Canadian Government involving land settlement and Aboriginal rights. The purpose of this paper is to explain the logic and reasoning behind the creation of Nunavut and its geographic boundaries, as well as describe various demographic, linguistic and cultural aspects of the Inuit people that differentiate them from the rest of Canada.

PATTERNS OF HOME-LEAVING AMONG YOUNG CANADIAN ADULTS: ANALYSES OF THE 1995 GENERAL SOCIAL SURVEY
John Zhao, Housing, Family and Social Statistics; Statistics Canada

Leaving parental homes is an important event in the lives of young adults. The 1995 General Social Survey conducted by Statistics Canada between January and December of 1995 contains the most recent and complete data on home-leaving. Employing this data, our study analyzes the impact of family structure on the timing and reasons of home-leaving. As a first attempt in Canada, the study employs competing risks proportional hazards technique to study the subject of home-leaving.

POPULATION AND POLITICS : CANADIAN STYLE
P. Krishnan, Sociology, University of Alberta

Political demography is concerned with the inter-relationships of population variables and political factors. Myron Weiner (1971) has presented a discussion of the various ways in which demographic factors affect politics, and political decisions and actions lead to demographic changes. The Canadian situation is discussed here. Starting from Klein's rise to power in Alberta, the recent referendum in Quebec to the election of the PC party in Ontario, the political changes in Canada have a series of consequences on Canadian demographic situation. These are presented and discussed.

PRE-MARITAL COHABITATION AND TIMING OF FIRST MARRIAGE
Zheng Wu , Sociology, University of Victoria

The recent surge in pre-marital cohabitation in Canada and other Western industrial countries is unprecedented. This paper examines the role of pre-marital cohabitation as a determinant of the transition to first marriage. Using union history data from the 1990 Family and Friends Survey (General Social Survey), we find that pre-marital cohabitation postpones the timing of first marriage by about 26% for women and 20% for men. This positive effect of cohabitation remains substantial and significant after we take into account self-selection into cohabitation. It appears that it is the experience of cohabiting that changes people's views of marriage and reduces their propensity to marry.

REFUGEE SETTLEMENT AND INTEGRATION IN REGINA
Paul Gingrich, Sociology and Social Studies, University of Regina

In this paper some of the results of a survey of 55 individuals who originally arrived in Regina as refugees are presented. The experiences of English language acquisition, labour market activity, and relationships involving community, friends and family are examined. The paper contains a short summary of the development of settlement services in Regina along with the reaction of refugees to these services and to government services and multiculturalism. The data for this paper come from a project that was carried out for the Saskatchewan Association of Immigrant Settlement and Integration Agencies and was funded by the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada.

THE ROLE OF FAMILY FUNCTIONING IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE: RESULTS FROM A NATIVE COMMUNITY AND COMPARISON WITH THE GENERAL POPULATION
Margaret DeWit, University of Toronto; Bryan Embree , University of Western Ontario; David DeWit, Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario

Using path analytic techniques, this study examines the relationship between childhood sexual victimization and alcohol consumption in later life. Two non-treatment populations are compared, one a Native Canadian community, and the other, the general Ontario population. The models are estimated separately for males and females. While the results for the two samples differ significantly in certain respects (including by sex), the importance of family functioning as an intervening factor is apparent for both Natives and non-Natives.

SELECTED CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED INCOME ENTITLEMENT
Jim Curtis, Sociology, University of Waterloo; Serge Desmarais, Psychology, University of Guelph

Researchers have shown in experimental studies that people differ strongly in their feelings of personal entitlements for monetary payment for work performed. The present study examines the influence of personal and work factors that may contribute to perceived income entitlement.

Our analyses were conducted for a national sample of full-time workers through the use of the General Social Survey (Cycle 9). Among the various factors under consideration are the effects of the comparison standard of previous experience with pay for work. Also considered are gender, education, age, time in the career, work stoppages, union membership, and other characteristics of work. The results emphasise the strong influence of pay history in perceptions of income entitlement; a pattern that holds across income levels.

SINGLE PARENTING OR ADOPTION: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF FORMER TEENAGE MOTHERS IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD
Ann Marie Sorenson , Sociology, University of Toronto; Carl F. Grindstaff, Sociology, University of Western Ontario

In spite of long-term socio-economic disadvantages, the very large majority of teenage mothers now opt to raise their children as single parents. Concern for persistent regret and psychological distress may contribute to a trend away from adoption.

This paper draws on longitudinal data, spanning seven years, from the confirmation of a teenage pregnancy to young adulthood, to describe the socio-economic and emotional well-being of young women who chose adoption and those who started out as single mothers.

TRIUMPHANT TRANSITIONS: SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SECOND GENERATION IN CANADA
Monica Boyd, Center for Population Studies, Florida State University; Elizabeth M. Grieco, Center for Population Studies, Florida State University

In surveying immigrant integration, a large body of North American literature stresses the over-achievement of the offspring of immigrants. With educational and occupational attainments superior to those of their parents and the third generation, the success of the second generation is viewed both as a measure of immigrant group integration and as a positive legacy of earlier flows of migrants.

Using data from the 1994 Canadian General Social Survey for women and men, age 25-54, this paper examines the proposition of triumphant transitions in which the second generation experiences high levels of educational and occupational mobility. The findings lend credence to a revisionary perspective on second-generation success.

UNION FORMATION AND REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Godfrey St. Bernard, Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

This study proposes to examine variations in a few key dimensions of practices that impact upon human reproduction among young adults. These include the onset of sexual activity, mating behaviour, pregnancy histories, and fertility regulation. In addition, the paper will explore variations in levels of cumulative and desired fertility.

Data are obtained from 3,621 youth aged 15-24 years and interviewed during the conduct of the 1994 National Youth Survey - Trinidad and Tobago. These findings will be important insofar as they will facilitate recommendations to be considered in a prospective national youth policy.

YOUTH AND CHILDREN OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGE MINORITIES: 1971-1991
Brian Harrison, Demography, Statistics Canada

The two decades between 1971 and 1991 witnessed considerable change in the size, composition and geographic distribution of the youth populations of Anglophones in Quebec and Francophones outside Quebec. Both populations are part of general minority populations that aged considerably over the period studied, and both populations declined markedly in numbers. The purpose of this paper is to present basic demographic and social characteristics of the two minority populations, and to analyze changes which occurred over the 20-year period.

Migration, exogamy and language transmission are presented as key factors which have influenced the two populations.